Obesity is defined as an excess of body fat. It occurs because the power taken is more than the consumed power. There are approximately 2 billion adults worldwide who are classified as overweight and obese due to genetic factors, diet, lifestyle change and economic well-being. Its incidence is also high in developing countries like us.
Adipose tissue constitutes 15-18% of the adult body mass in men and 20-25% in women. If the fat ratio exceeds 25% of the body mass in men and 35% in women, obesity is mentioned. Body mass index (BMI) is used to determine the degree of obesity. There are criteria accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Individuals with a BMI of more than 30 kg/m2 can be called obese/obese. But this process may not be decisive for every individual. For example, although high muscle mass in athletes can increase their BMI, these individuals are not called obese.
It is not only the amount of fat in the body that determines the risks and diseases related to obesity, but also this. is the distribution of oil. Obesity is divided into two types according to the fat distribution region: central abdominal (android, apple form) and gluteofemoral (gynecoid, pear form) obesity. The distinction of these two is determined by the ratio of the waist circumference measurement to the hip circumference measurement. This rate is female. 0. 9 and man 1. 0′ ‘gynecoid obesity’; If it is high, it is defined as ‘android obesity’.
Evaluation of waist circumference measurement in terms of health compared to gender in adults low risk high risk
Women<80 cm > 88cm
in men<94 cm > 102cm
(Report of a WHO Expert Consultation 2008, WHO)
Waist and hip measurements are made as seen in the form on the right. The measurement is taken 2 fingers above the widest area of the hip and the belly button of the waist.
According to the American Heart Association, beverages with added sugar are among the largest sources of calories. High fructose corn syrup is used instead of sugar, mostly in soft drinks, and is considered amide potential risks for obesity. Packaged works and ready-made drinks should be paid attention to.
WHAT ARE THE DISEASES CAUSED BY ABDOMINAL ALUMINATION?
The International Diabetes Foundation also counts abdominal obesity amid risk factors for metabolic syndrome. According to the results of the Turkey Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity and Endocrinological Diseases Prevalence Study-II (TURDEP-2), the number of individuals aged 20 and over in our country at 32%abdominal obesity is seen. Every obese patient should be screened for metabolic syndrome and used as an indicator of visceral adiposity. Waist circumference measurement should be used instead of BMI.
It has been demonstrated by various studies that obesity has a risk of creating cardiovascular diseases, as is the case with Metabolic Syndrome. According to a study conducted by the Turkish Society of Cardiology, almost 25,000 of the cases of Coronary Heart Diseases that develop each year in our population can be attributed to abdominal obesity. It is hypothesized that a 1 cm increase in waist circumference leads to an increase of 6 to 7,000 in the number of Coronary Heart Diseases in adults.
Visceral fat is very active in the metabolic direction. It can be used in the liver and cause hepatic insulin resistance. Because of this, this situation can lead to deterioration in glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. In addition, changes in lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase levels cause dyslipidemia, especially hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels.
According to a study published in The American Journal, the relationship between body mass index and central adiposity with diabetes was investigated. waist/hip ratio and waist size were found to be associated with diabetes.
WHAT SHOULD WE DO?
• Sufficient and stable calorie intake should be ensured, and a healthy diet should be arranged. Dietary models that are limited in saturated fats and cholesterol, rich in complex carbohydrates, consuming plenty of fruits and vegetables, and salt restriction are recommended for those with hypertension.
• Increasing physical activity and motivating individuals in this regard. Thus, both the risk of cardiovascular events and the development of metabolic syndrome can be reduced.
• It is known that increasing the consumption of foods such as fish, vegetables and fruits, legumes, unpurified grains, which are strong in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants, reduce the risk of coronary diseases.
• Slowly digested low glycemic index diets may also have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism.
• According to the American Nutrition Magazine; Green tea helps to lose weight with regular exercise. Researchers have found that catechins in green tea increase calorie burning in the body and reduce fat around the waist. Studies in rats eating blueberries have found that the waist region has less fat.
• While talking about lifestyle changes, the issue of smoking and alcohol should also be emphasized. I suggest you reduce the dimensions or remove them from your life if possible.
Eating a balanced diet and exercising more are the best ways to reduce your waist circumference. A lot of research has been done; Fruit, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, legumes, oil seeds, lean meat, fish, eggs and a stable diet that meets all nutrients and supplementing with 30 to 60 minutes of exercise 3-4 days a week will keep the waist circumference under control. shows that it can be obtained.