Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which has different clinical features such as inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, is an early-onset neuropsychiatric disorder seen in childhood. It affects the social, emotional and cognitive development of the child. It negatively affects the relations of the child with his family, peers, academic success and self-confidence.

Attention Deficit Symptoms:

ignoring details or making mistakes due to the child’s carelessness in school assignments, work or other activities,

not wanting to deal with the activities in question, avoiding them,

Difficulty maintaining attention on a task, task, or activity

have difficulty planning and organizing them

Difficulty completing the assigned task in accordance with the given instruction,

pretending not to listen when spoken to,

frequently losing his tools, belongings,

quickly distracted by external stimuli,

is forgetfulness in daily activities and work.

Hyperactivity Symptoms:

fidgeting of his hands and feet, fidgeting in his seat,

getting up and walking around when it is necessary to sit,

improperly walking, climbing,

talking a lot,

mostly in motion, the engine is about to be stuck,

play is having difficulty in calmly maintaining activities such as revel.

Signs of impulsivity:

Doesn’t try to answer the question before it’s over,

trouble waiting your turn,

interrupting, dividing, teasing others in a disturbing way.

The symptoms listed for the diagnosis of ADHD are;

onset at an early age, before the age of 7 (average 5 years and later)

To be seen and persisted in at least 2 environments, especially in school and residence,

observed for at least 6 months,

The child must be below what is expected for his or her age and developmental level.

Also, there are 3 types of ADHD:

Predominantly attention-deficit type: It is the type in which the symptoms of attention deficit are at the forefront, and the symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity are either not severe enough to be diagnosed or not seen at all.

The type in which hyperactivity is prominent: It is the type in which hyperactivity and impulsivity are at the forefront, and the symptoms of attention deficit are not severe enough to be diagnosed.

Combined type: It is the type in which all 3 symptoms are severe enough to be diagnosed.

Causes of ADHD: Although it is not known exactly, it is defined as a disorder caused by more than one factor. Twin studies reveal that ADHD is a genetic and familial disorder. Although not shown as the only reason; Difficulty in childbirth, problems experienced during childbirth, low birth weight, the use of certain drugs and conditions (cigarettes, alcohol, etc.) used by the mother during pregnancy, and brain diseases and damage are thought to increase the risk of ADHD.

Children diagnosed with ADHD often have some accompanying disorders. Learning Difficulty, Oppositional Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety (Anxiety Disorder), Adjustment Disorder and Tic Disorders are the most common among these.

Studies show that the symptoms that appear in the preschool period most likely continue in the school period. Attention problems overlapping with anger, violent behaviors and impulsivity in preschool period mostly continue during school years. It is seen that inconsistent behaviors of parents towards discipline, problematic family environment, insufficient parental support, rejecting, indifferent or very punitive attitudes cause more severe symptoms in children with ADHD. For this reason, detailed evaluation and follow-up of children with ADHD symptoms in preschool is valuable.

Treatment: The most valuable step in the treatment of ADHD is to make the clinical diagnosis correctly and to establish a good cooperation with the family and school. Behavioral treatment techniques, which include structured proposals and approaches about ADHD to the child, family, and teachers, along with medication, are the most frequently recommended and reciprocated formulas.

Course and end: ADHD is a disorder that can cause life problems. The problems experienced do not only belong to school and course success. The symptoms and behaviors in question also affect the child’s learning, family life, peer relations, and success in sports and other activities. In about half of these children, the disorder is life-long, so treatment may be necessary at any stage of life.

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