Atom Models and Properties that Have Changed Over the Years

If we ask what is the smallest state of matter, many people will answer the atom, but this is not a correct answer. For many years, it was believed that the atom was the smallest piece of matter, but today it is known that the atom consists of a positive nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons and neutrons. Atomic models have been created over the years to understand the atom. and some attributes attributed stubs.

Atomic models, actually shows us the journey of scientists trying to solve the smallest state of matter. Prepared over the years atomic models gradually developed and its known features were added to its current form. Some of these models are extremely simple, while others have very detailed explanations. Let’s take a closer look at the scientific journey of atomic models in history.

Atom models and their prominent features:

  • Dalton atomic model
  • Thomson atomic model
  • Rutherford atomic model
  • Bohr atomic model
  • James Chadwick atomic model
  • Other atomic models

Dalton atomic model features:

  • Dalton atomic model

The idea of ​​atom, which was put forward by two Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus in the fifth century BC, by the chemist John Dalton in 1805. was brought up again. Dalton came up with a model that suggested that all existing matter consists of indivisible atoms. Nuclei and electrons are not included in the Dalton model of the atom.

Thomson atomic model features:

  • Thomson atomic model

British physicist Joseph John Thomson was born in 1897. discovered the electrons inside atoms, revealing the Thomson model of the atom. Although it was much more advanced than Dalton’s model of the atom, there was still no mention of the nucleus.

According to the Thomson model, which introduced the pudding model in 1904, which won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906, the atom is consisted of electrons floating in a positively charged soup.The model is therefore likened to plums in pudding and raisins in cake.

Rutherford atomic model features:

  • Rutherford atomic model

New Zealander – British experimental physicist Ernest Rutherford came up with the planetary model for atoms in the following years. The Rutherford model of the atom had a nucleus. According to this model, the atom consisted of a positively charged nucleus and electrons orbiting it. Just like the planets orbiting the Sun. For this reason, the Rutherford model of the atom is also called the planetary model.

Bohr atomic model features:

  • Bohr atomic model

Although Rutherford’s model of the atom seemed correct, it still did not explain why atoms emit light at certain wavelengths and frequencies. At this point Danish physicist Niels Bohr stepped in and revealed the Bohr model of the atom.

According to Niels Bohr’s model of the atom, the atom is surrounded by a positive nucleus. in orbits determined according to different energy levels consisted of spinning electrons. Orbits determined by these energy levels could be unique within each atom.

James Chadwick atomic model features:

  • Neutron

According to British Physicist James Chadwick, who worked on the Rutherford model of the atom, in the atomic nucleus was not true that there were only positively charged protons.If the nucleus consisted of only positively charged protons, it would break apart due to repulsive forces. Thinking that the atom must somehow remain neutral, James Chadwick discovered the neutron in 1932 and was able to measure its mass.

Other atomic models:

Scientists are still developing new atomic models. These developments also pave the way for quantum physics. Australian physicist Erwin Schrödinger, German physicist Werner Heisenberg and German mathematician and physicist Max Born are among the names who developed atomic models. The studies of these names paved the way for important developments especially in the field of quantum.

Why are atomic models important?

Humanity has tried to make sense of what it sees around it since its existence. This has created science and philosophy by systematizing the studies of meaning.Though we have made sense of what we see thanks to science and philosophy, things too big to see and too small to see are still waiting to be discovered.

Thanks to space studies, we gradually started to discover things that are too big for us to see. However Things that are too small for us to see still remain a mystery. The most important studies that guide scientists in this discovery process are atomic models and similar drafts.

As we have explained, thanks to many atomic models, scientists have started to solve these little mysteries and can now continue their work at the quantum level. When we look at the scientific journey of atomic models in history, we can say that Quantum studies done today are actually in the fifth century BC. was initiated by two Greek philosophers, Democritus and Leucippus, who first introduced the idea of ​​the atom.

For many years, while trying to make sense of the atom, which we know as the smallest state of matter, atomic models and we talked about its features. This is what makes science fascinating.Ideas put forward thousands of years ago support today’s scientific studies.

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